An account from the frontline of ‘the largest displacement of children on the planet’

By Sacha Pfeiffer, Michael Levitt, and Tinbete Ermyas
Fighters ride in a vehicle moving in a military convoy accompanying the governor of Sudan's Darfur State on Aug. 30, 2023.
Fighters ride in a vehicle moving in a military convoy accompanying the governor of Sudan’s Darfur State on Aug. 30, 2023.

The United Nations warns that the conflict in Sudan has caused one of the world’s largest human displacements.

It began about 10 months ago, when the Sudanese military and a powerful paramilitary group began fighting each other for political control.

Last week, the U.N. pleaded for more aid to the region. It said the fighting had displaced more than 10 million people — many of them fleeing to neighboring countries. It’s also left 18 million people facing acute food insecurity.

Stay informed on the latest news

Sign up for WPR’s email newsletter.

This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.

James Elder is a spokesperson for UNICEF — the U.N. agency that provides humanitarian aid to children — and has just returned from a trip to the border of Sudan and Chad. He spoke to NPR’s Sacha Pfeiffer about what he saw.

And a warning: Some of what is discussed may be difficult to read.

This interview has been lightly edited for length and clarity.

Interview highlights

Sacha Pfeiffer:James Elder:

And then just this exhaustion of people that you see, whether it was in Chad, where the refugees have gone, or whether it’s those in Darfur who are still terrified because they’ve had homes looted and burned. There is just that look amongst people that they’re battered, they’re exhausted, and they’re still terrified because war is very much still raging in Sudan.

Pfeiffer: Elder:

People speak to a couple of things. They speak to the horrendous violations, what we call “grave violations.” The sexual abuse, seeing children killed, seeing rape of sisters or of mothers — this horrible level of kind of human suffering.

As a woman said to me, “If they couldn’t steal it, they burned it.” You know, I heard stories of someone’s brother having sand stuffed so far down his throat into his esophagus. Deliberate attempts just to terrify and torture people.

So the stories are endless, as are the stories of those people who walk for days and days with badly malnourished children, desperately seeking help. They’re repeated time and again.

Pfeiffer: Elder:

We get “therapeutic food” – it’s basically “magic” peanut paste — to children, we try and get that across the country. That’s difficult as well because aid is blocked in areas.

But nutrition is a big one, and when you have a health system in tatters and when you have millions of people not actually accessing safe water and these relentless attacks on people, you have this vicious cycle of nutrition and water and disease, and that’s what will kill children.

Pfeiffer: Elder:

As ever, the poorest countries around the globe — not just in this crisis — absorb the most refugees. Those with the least tend to constantly be asked to give the most, and that’s what we’re seeing here.

Within this, we’re seeing people die from nutrition, seeing people die from bullets, seeing people die from clean water. But there’s another type of death that I really noticed going on. I was in Darfur 20 years ago. I went back this last week for the first time in 20 years … and met a lot of 20-somethings and their dreams had died. And I found that devastating.

These were youth who would have been very small kids during those massacres in Darfur of 20 years ago. But somehow their parents kept them alive, and they latched on to life. They’re studying. They’re doing economics, medical sciences, I.T., you name it – all the things that a country needs. But these brightest minds are having to abandon their studies and their ambitions are being shattered.

I sat with many people, but one sticks in my mind — this electric 22-year-old woman in Darfur. And we’re talking about being a woman in Sudan, and life, and war. And she said, this is pretty much verbatim: “I had a dream. It was to study medical science. I was living that dream. Now, I have nothing. I do not dream. Sadness is my friend.”


If you don’t get it right — and there’s a clock that ticks on this — you have a massive youth population, they’re disaffected, you have tensions, political disorder, all these things, security, instability.

So it’s either a demographic dividend or a demographic disaster. And that is very much in the United States’, the Europeans’, everyone’s interest, to make sure that this youth bulge is a dividend to the region, to the countries and the world.

Copyright 2024 NPR. To see more, visit